Scheduling various types of baked goods becomes increasingly complex when handling multiple orders in a single process (a large oven). The aim is to establish an sequence of orders that, when executed, results in the least amount of waiting time between processes, reducing the chance of wastage.
In a bakery, mixers and ovens can go down, or may have to be brought down for cleaning. Different products may only be produced on certain lines, and scheduling optimally to reduce downtimes while simultaneously meeting demand presents a significant challenge. Ingredients lists need to be carefully tracked, not only so that inventories can be kept up, but also to avoid cross-contamination of allergen ingredients used in production in different parts of the factory.